PART 2 considers the principles developed by Sun Tzu on organising your business affairs, and follows on from part one which looked at qualities of successful leaders,
I have summarised Sun Tzu’s principles into four simple categories:
- Qualities of a successful leader;
- Oranising your business affairs;
- Dealing with rivals; and
- Strategies for effective leadership.
2. Organising your business affairs
2.1 Management must be independent of owners
If you are the CEO of a company, you must not take directions from the owner or shareholders in how to run the day to day affairs of the company.
If fighting is sure to result in victory, then you must fight, even though the [owner] forbid it; if fighting will not result in victory, then you must not fight even at the [owner]’s bidding.
2.2 Make preparations
You must constantly plan, prepare and train your employees. If you do not, you will not be in a good position to take advantage of the next exciting business opportunity.
…the general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple ere the battle is fought. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand.
He will win who, prepared himself, waits to take the [competitor] unprepared.
2.3 Make no mistakes
Making no mistakes is what establishes the certainty of victory, for it means conquering [a competitor] that is already defeated.
2.4 Prioritise tasks
Having limited capital and resources at his disposal, an experienced leader must prioritise tasks in order to achieve specific goals.
2.5 Choose your battles
He will win who knows when to fight and when not to fight.
2.6 Work swiftly in short bursts
The chief lesson is the paramount importance in business of rapid action and sudden rushes, “great results can thus be achieved with small forces.”
2.7 Adapt to the circumstances
In business, there are no constant conditions and you must adapt your strategies accordingly.
Do not repeat the tactics which have gained you one victory, but let your methods be regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances.
2.8 Pay attention to changing market conditions
The rising of birds in their flight is the sign of an ambuscade. “When birds that are flying along in a straight line suddenly shoot upwards, it means that soldiers are in ambush at the spot beneath.
2.9 Adapt your strategy to the size of your organisation
You must adapt your business strategy to the size of the company and its competitors. For example, a large company may be suited to producing commodities; a small company may be better suited to producing highly specialised differentiated products.
He will win who knows how to handle both superior and inferior forces.
2.10 Seize opportunities
Look for gaps in the market.
You can be sure of succeeding in your attacks if you only attack places which are undefended.
Always be ready to seize the next big opportunity, especially when you are facing business difficulties.
If…in the midst of difficulties we are always ready to seize an advantage, we may extricate ourselves from misfortune.
Those who want to make sure of succeeding in their battles and assaults must seize the favourable moments… [w]hat they must not do, and what will prove fatal, is to sit still and simply hold on to the advantages they have got.
2.11 Avoid threats
If you can establish a business that has a natural monopoly, high barriers to entry or some other competitive advantage, this will greatly reduce the competition. For example, eBay has a natural monopoly in the online auction market. Buyers and sellers are naturally drawn to eBay because so many other people already use the site. This makes it easier for sellers to find a buyer and easier for buyers to find a product that takes their fancy.
You can ensure the safety of your defence if you only hold positions that cannot be attacked.
2.12 Obey the rules until the decisive moment arrives
Walk in the path defined by rule, and accommodate yourself to the enemy until you can fight a decisive battle [then] [d]iscard hard and fast rules. Victory is the only thing that matters, and this cannot be achieved by adhering to conventional cannons.